## Mathematical models for class-D amplifiers

Hall, Fenella T.H. (2011) Mathematical models for class-D amplifiers. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.

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## Abstract

We here analyse a number of class-D amplifier topologies. Class-D amplifiers operate by converting an audio input signal into a high-frequency square wave output, whose lower-frequency components can accurately reproduce the input. Their high power efficiency and potential for low distortion makes them suitable for use in a wide variety of electronic devices. By calculating the outputs from a classical class-D design implementing different sampling schemes we demonstrate that a more recent method, called the Fourier transform/Poisson resummation method, has many advantages over the double Fourier series method, which is the traditional technique employed for this analysis. We thereby show that when natural sampling is used the input signal is reproduced exactly in the low-frequency part of the output, with no distortion. Although this is a known result, our calculations present the method and notation that we later develop.

The classical class-D design is prone to noise, and therefore negative feedback is often included in the circuit. Subsequently we incorporate the Fourier transform/Poisson resummation method into a formalised and succinct analysis of a first-order negative feedback amplifier. Using perturbation expansions we derive the audio-frequency part of the output, demonstrating that negative feedback introduces undesirable distortion. Here we reveal the next order terms in the output compared with previous work, giving further insight into the nonlinear distortion. We then further extend the analysis to examine two more complex negative feedback topologies, namely a second-order and a derivative negative feedback design. Modelling each of these amplifiers presents an increased challenge due to the differences in their respective circuit designs, and in addition, for the derivative negative feedback amplifier we must consider scaling regimes based on the relative magnitudes of the frequencies involved. For both designs we establish novel expressions for the output, including the most significant distortion terms.

Item Type: Thesis (PhD) Cox, S.M.Creagh, S.C. UK Campuses > Faculty of Science > School of Mathematical Sciences 1891 Miss FTH Hall 17 Oct 2011 10:27 17 Oct 2011 10:27

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