Leighton, Jonathan M (2010) GPS and PSI integration for monitoring urban land motion. PhD thesis, University of Nottingham.
Urban ground motion due to natural or man-made geological processes is an issue of major importance for local authorities, property developers, planners and buyers. Increased knowledge of this phenomena would benefit all involved but the measurement techniques in common use have either spatial or temporal inadequacies. A technique known as Persistent Scatterer Interferometry (PSI) has been developed which can map ground motion to high precision over large areas with a temporal scale measured in years. PSI takes advantage of the high number of Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) images available to mitigate the atmospheric effects that inhibit standard Interferometric SAR (InSAR) techniques. This however involves assumptions about the nature of atmospheric variability, such as its randomness over time, or its spatial extent. In addition, little is known about the Persistent Scatterers (PS) themselves and PSI is only able to provide results relative to a reference PS. The reference PS point is often arbitrarily chosen and may itself be in an area undergoing ground motion, thus adding a degree of ambiguity to any relatively derived motion. The purpose of this work is to investigate possible solutions to these shortfalls and quantify any improvements made.
A corner reflector network is established in the Nottingham area of the UK. A data archive is collated over three years containing Global Positioning System (GPS) data at the corner reflector sites, data from surrounding Continuous GPS (CGPS) sites and levelling data. Due to conflicts with the European Space Agency (ESA) Environmental Satellite (ENVISAT), there were insufficient SAR images to com- pute a fully integrated corner reflector PSI study. Instead, the project focussed on atmospheric correction of PSI results using absolute ZWD estimates. Zenith Wet Delay (ZWD) estimates are derived from a Precise Point Positioning (PPP) GPS processing method which does not rely on a network of ground stations and therefore produces absolute ZWD estimates which are less prone to biases and noise. These are interpolated across a PSI study area and used to mitigate the long wavelength effects of atmopheric water vapour in the PSI differential interferograms. The corrected PSI results are then compared to uncorrected results, GPS derived motion and levelling data.
Results between the ZWD corrected PSI study and the uncorrected study show statistical improvements in some areas and reductions in others. Correlation factors between double-differenced levelling observations and double-differenced PSI results improve from 0.67 to 0.81. PSI deformation rates also show improvement when compared to GPS deformation rates, although some results do not satisfy statistical tests.
|Item Type:||Thesis (PhD)|
Atmospheric Phase Screen|
|Faculties/Schools:||UK Campuses > Faculty of Engineering > Department of Civil Engineering|
|Deposited By:||Dr Jon Leighton|
|Deposited On:||24 Sep 2010 14:27|
|Last Modified:||24 Sep 2010 14:27|
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